2019年万博登录英语二历年真题答案解析_万博登录英语二阅读答案是万博登录英语试题的第二部分考题，阅读理解有两篇，Part A和Part B，我们接下来主要先来看阅读理解部分的第一篇，Part A部分的答案解析。
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40 points)
Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger, guilt emerges a little later, in conjunction with a child’s growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren’t born knowing how to say “I’m sorry”; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends—and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be a good thing.
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It is deeply uncomfortable—it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,” says Amrisha Vaish, a psychology researcher at the University of Virginia, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren’t binary—feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness can be destructive.
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness, can encourage humans to make up for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.
In a 2014 study, for example, Malti looked at 244 children. Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child’s overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn’t magically become more sympathetic to the other child’s deprivation.
“That’s good news,” Malti says. “We can be prosocial because we caused harm and we feel regret.”
21.Researchers think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help______.
A)regulate a child's basic emotions
B)improve a child's intellectual ability
C)foster a child’s moral development
D)intensity a child's positive feelings
【答案】C foster a child’s positive feelings
【解析】根据题干“researchers”， “guilt”， “a good thing”关键词定位到第一段最后一句，除此之外，提干中还有关键词“because”， 判定该题属于细节题中考查因果逻辑关系的题目，需要在原文中精准回文定位;原文中第一段最后一段明确出现了“This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt…a good thing.”根据代词向前文指代的原则，题干中所问的原因就在上一句，由“Children aren’t born knowing how to say ‘I’m sorry’， rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”，其中的“such statements appease parents and friends----and their own conscience”(该品质能够使父母/朋友和孩子自己都感觉更舒适)，such statements指代的即为“say sorry”或文章主题词guilt, 纵观四个选型，只有C选项foster a child’s moral development(提高孩子的道德发展)可以实现同义替换，故为正确答案。其余选项A.regulate a child’s basic emotions (管理孩子基本情绪)中的regulate原文未提及， B. improve a child’s intellectual ability(改善孩子的智力)中intellectual ability原文未提及，而D.intensify a child’s positive feelings(加强孩子的积极感觉)在原文中未提及，故排除。
22.According to paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be______.
【解析】 根据题干可知这是一个典型的细节题。根据题干关键信息 “paragraph 2, “ many people still consider guild to be”定位到第二段，最终锁定对本段第二句话的理解，尤其关键的是对第二句话中破折号的理解，“it is deeply uncomfortable-it’s the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. ” (这种感觉非常不舒服，就像穿着一件石头做的夹克一样) , 对比所给四个选项，只有 B 项“burdensome”(负担沉重的，繁重的)与原文表述一致，故为最佳答案。 A项“deceptive” (欺骗的) C项“addictive”(上瘾的) 以及D项“inexcusable” (不可原谅的)均与原文表述不一致，故排除。
23. Vaish hold that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that______.
A)emotions are context-independent
B)emotions are socially constructive
C)emotional stability can benefit health
D)an emotion can play opposing roles
【答案】D an emotion can play opposing roles
【解析】根据题干可知这是一个典型的细节题。根据题干关键信息 “Vaish holds that …awareness that.” 定位本文的第二段 “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking …can serve.”但是这句话是他的观点句，也就是题干信息所在句，本句没有答案，因此，根据线性思维，下文他又继续补充到“adding that this revival is a psychology researcher……in another ”(这种复兴是更大的认识的一部分，即情绪不是二元情感，在一个情境中有利的情绪在另一个情境中可能是有害的)， 对比四个选项，只有 D“an emotion can play opposing roles” (情绪可以起到相反的作用) 为最佳答案。A项“emotions are context-independent”(情绪与语境无关)与原文表述相反。 B 项“emotions are socially constructive”(从社会角度讲，情绪具有积极性) 在文中没有提及。C项“emotional stability can benefit health”(情绪稳定有益与身体健康) 在文中没有提及，故排除。
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______.
A. may help correct emotional deficiencies
B. can result from either sympathy or guilt
C. can bring about emotional satisfaction
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
【答案】B can result from either sympathy or guilt
【解析】根据题干可知这是一道人物观点题。根据题干关键词“Malti and others have shown 与cooperation and sharing.”回文定位到第四段第三句：“Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing.” (马尔蒂和其他人已经表明，内疚和同情可能代表了合作和分享的不同途径。) 对比四个选项，只有B项 can result from either sympathy or guilt(要么归因于同情，要么归因于内疚)与原文表述一致，故为正确选项。A项may help correct emotional deficiencies(可能有助于改正情感缺陷)与第四段第二句话… that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency(内疚可能会弥补情感缺陷)不符。C项can bring about emotional satisfaction(能够带来情感上的满足)并未提及。D项may be the outcome of impulsive acts (可能是冲动行为的结果) 与第四段第三句…which can rein in their nastier impulses(这可以控制他们更糟糕的冲动)因果倒置，故排除。
25. The word “transgressions” (Para.5) is closest in meaning to _______.
【解析】根据题干要求定位到第五段第二句话“Using caregiver assessments and the children’s self-observations, she rated each child's overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions after moral transgressions.” 且位于主句的“transgressions”的前面出现to feel negative emotions，情感属于消极贬义。对比四个选项，D项wrongdoings坏事，不道德的行为，属于贬义词，与其情感色彩一致，故为正确选项。A项teachings 教导，属于褒义词。B项discussions 讨论，属于中性词 。C项restrictions 限制;约束，属于中性词，故排除。
Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the larder callenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.
Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap-but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable “carbon sinks” long into the future may require reducing their capacity to absorb carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts, in figuring out the details.
The state’s proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest’s capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off insects. The landscape is rendered less easily burnable. Even in the event of a fine, fewer trees are consumed.
The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010, drought and insects have killed over 100 million trees in California, most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have burned hundreds of thousands of acres.
California plans to treat 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030- financed from the proceeds of the state’s emissions- permit auctions. That’s only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, about half a million acres in all, so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber or burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels. New research on transportation biofuels is already under way.
State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, but traditionally they’ve focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California’s plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor next year, should serve as a model.
26. By saying “one of the harder challenges,” the author implies that _______.
A. global climate change may get out of control
B. people may misunderstand global warming
C. extreme weather conditions may arise
D. forests may become a potential threat
【答案】D forests may become a potential threat
【解析】 根据题干信息词定位到首段。第一句引出文章话题“在人类对抗气候变化中，森林给我们带来了一个更为艰巨的挑战。”第二句指出人类正在威胁到森林吸收二氧化碳的能力。第三句“The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forest that emit more carbon than they absorb.”为本段的主题句，指出我们人类所造成的气候变化问题最终会使得森林排放更多的二氧化碳，而不是吸收。即森林可能会威胁气候的恶化和人类的生存。故选择D项“森林可能会变为一个潜在威胁。”
27. To maintain forests as valuable “carbon sinks,” we may need to _______.
A. preserve the diversity of species in them
B. accelerate the growth of young trees
C. strike a balance among different plants
D. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
【答案】D Lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
【解析】根据题干要求定位到第二段。该段首句中的前半句there is a way out of this trap对应题干中To maintain forest as valuable “carbon sinks”， 后半句提出具体的解决方法it involves striking a subtle balance(这需要达到一个微妙的平衡)，但并没有说这个平衡是不同植被间的平衡，故不能据此选[C]strike a balance among different plants。紧接着第二句提到要达到这一目的可能需要reducing their (forests’) capacity to absorb carbon now(降低他们(森林)现在吸收碳的能力)，由此可知正确答案应为[D]选项。
28. California’s Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to _______.
A. cultivate more drought-resistant trees
B. reduce the density of some of its forests
C. find more effective ways to kill insects
D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires
【答案】B reduce the density of some of its forests
【解析】细节题做题的技巧是“准确定位和匹配”。根据题干关键词 “Forest Carbon Plan”定位至第三段第一句话。题干中问题是“endeavor to”表示“努力做…”对应文章中 “double efforts to” ,因此答案在这个短语之后即“thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest”表示的意思是使“森林里部分小树变稀疏，清理部分灌木”，这与选项C中的“reduce the density of some of its fforests”即“降低森林的密度”一致。因此正确答案选C。
29. What is essential to California’s plan according to Paragraph 5?
A.To handle the areas in serious danger first.
B.To carry it out before the year of 2020.
C.To perfect the emissions-permit auctions.
D.To obtain enough financial support.
【答案】A To handle the areas inserious danger first
【解析】根据题目定位到第5段，题目What is essential to California's plan 中的essential可回文定位，对应原文中的so it will be vital to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought的vital，其后的prioritize对应选项中的handle…first，areas at greatest risk对应选项中的the areas in serious danger，故正确选项为A。
30. The author’s attitude to California’s plan can best be described as _______.
【解析】根据题干关键词“attitude”，可确定是态度题。做态度题的核心是把握明显感情色彩的关键词，即可快速得出答案。而在文章的最后一段，往往会出现本文的结论，容易出现感情色彩的关键词。根据最后一段最后一句，California's plan, which is ……， should serve as a model (California的计划应该能够起到榜样作用)，model是一个积极色彩的词汇，所以答案选B supportive 支持的。
American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years. The complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.
Congress has obstructed efforts to create a more straightforward visa for agricultural workers that would let foreign workers stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities, and consumers will be the losers.
Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the country, the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled rather than migrating and more likely to be married than single. They’re also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now more than half are. And picking crops is hard on older bodies. One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it’s been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.
Mechanization isn’t the answer, either—not yer, at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans, and wheat has been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive corps, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots do a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they’re automated.
As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.
The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 a year. Even so, employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive, and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led the average H-2A worker to arrive on the job 22 days late. The shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.
In a 2012 survey, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and almost 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western farmers have responded by moving operations to Mexico. From 1998 to 2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imports was 25.8 percent.
In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
31. What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
A. Discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.
B. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.
C. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.
D. Decline of job opportunities U.S. agriculture.
【答案】 [C] Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers
【解析】根据题干提示词first two paragraphs可知本题依据文章前两段命制，为双段推理型题目。快速扫读可知前两段大意为：美国针对外来农民所定移民规则中存在一些问题，并指出如不及时解决美国商业，社会以及消费者都会受到影响。比对选项可直接判断正确选项为C项，其余选项均属无中生有，直接排除。
32. One trouble with U.S. agricultural workforce is .
A. the rising number of illegal immigrants
B. the high mobility of crop workers
C. the lack of experienced laborers
D. the aging of immigrant farm workers
【答案】[D] the aging of immigrant farm workers
【解析】细节推理题。根据题干中的trouble, U.S. agricultural workforce以及段落序列定位到文中第三段第二句。定位段第三至七句都在论证第二句的内容，其中第三句论证的是劳动力的来源及其倾向，第四至七句论证的是劳动力在变老并指出picking crops is hard on older bodies. 与选项D吻合。选项A中的rising及illegal属于无中生有，选项B中的high mobility与定位段中的farm labors are more likely to be settled rather than immigrating矛盾，选项C属无中生有。
33.What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S. farming?
A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.
B. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.
D. To strengthen financial support for farmers.
【答案】 [B] To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
【解析】细节题。根据题干中的much-argued solution to the labor shortage定位到第三段最后一句，其中oft-debated对应原文的much-argued，solution对应原文的cure，剩余信息出答案，冒号解释了这个经常被谈论的方法：美国本国工人不会重返农场。说明本身的解决方法是让美国本国工人回到农场，与选项[B]一致。[A]选项attract younger laborers在文章未体现，文章只是提到现在的farm laborer在老龄化。[C]选项出现在文章的第四段，文章只是说在high-value crops上需要劳动力。在乳牛场机器人只做了一小部分工作。选项将两部分杂糅在一起了。[D]选项中financial support在文中未提及，属于无中生有。
34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its .
A. slow granting procedures
B. limit on duration of stay
C. tightened requirements
D. control of annual admissions
【答案】 [A] slow granting procedures
【解析】 因果细节题。根据题干中的具体信息，agricultural employers，complain，about the H-2A visa。回文定位到第六段。根据具体信息定位到第六段的，Employers complain they aren’t given all the workers they need.这句话是抱怨的内容，文中问的是原因，紧接着下面一句话，the process is cumbersome，expensive，and unreliable.并且在这句话后面one survey 是例子。根据例子证明论点，下面的例子和前面的the process这句话表达的观点是一致的。同时，在例子中有for的同义词lead to，导致了arrive on the job 22 days late. Delay，late 对应选项中的slow，procedure对应process。所以选A。 B中的limit，原文后面跟着是人数66,000，偷换概念。C中的request出现在例子中，说的是visa rose sharply。D项文中未提及，无中生有。
35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?
A. U.S. Agriculture in Decline?
B. Import Food or Labor?
C. America Saved by Mexico?
D. Manpower vs. Automation?
【答案】B Import Food or Labor?
Amold Schwarzenegger. Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you. It’s easy to beat plastic. They’re part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day—encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics crisis.
The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single-use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals.
My concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. One their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our bit” without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions—a kind of “moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping hags and straws, we’re ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “ citizens” hole our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change.
It’s important to acknowledge that the environment isn’t everyone’s priority-or even most people’s. We shouldn’t expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things. Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will “eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal.
DeSombre isn’t saying people should stop caring about the environment. It’s just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses)， alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to
A. demand new laws on the use of plastics
B. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
D. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
【答案】A urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
【解析】从题干” some celebrities star in a new video to”定位第一段第3句：“ They’re part of a bunch to celebrities starring in a new video for……to swap out your single-use plastic staples to combat the plastics crisis. ”意为：“鼓励消费者减少单一使用塑料制品，与塑料制品危机抗争”，与A 选项 “urge consumers to cut the use of plastics”“鼓励消费者减少塑料袋的使用”含义相符合。
37.The author is concerned that “moral licensing” may
A. mislead us into doing worthless things
B. prevent us from making further efforts
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
D. suppress our desire for success
【答案】A prevent us from making further efforts
【解析】根据题干the author is concerned that “crisis licensing”定位到第3段，最后一句：“they could even …to have done our bit without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions---… a kind of “crisis licensing “ that eases our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge” 意为：“……他们没有采取更大，更明显，更有效的举措…”与A选项“ prevent us from making further efforts” “妨碍我们进一步的举措”含义相符。
38. By pointing out out identity “citizens”， the author indicates that
A. our focus should be shifted to community welfare
B. our relationship with local industries is improving
C. We have been actively exercising our civil rights
D. We should press our government to lead the combat
【答案】C we should press our governments to lead the combat
【解析】根据题干…“citizens”， the author indicates that, 定位到第4段，最后半句 rather than as “citizens”hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change. 意为：“ 而不是作为”citizens” 去要求政府和工业去推行真正的系统化的改变。言外之意，就是作者希望政府做出改变去应对现在的情形。与C选项中“we should press our governments to lead the combat” “我们应该向政府施压，使之主导这次抗争”相符合。
39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be
A. a win-win arrangement
B. a self-driven mechanism
C. a cost-effective approach
D. a top down process
【答案】C a top- down process
【解析】根据题干可知这是一道观点细节题。根据题干关键词可定位在第五、六段“Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large number of people is for the change to be structural” 由该段可知，DeSombre认为集体性的改变大多数人行为的最好的方式就是使其变成结构性的。六段进一步从人们和政府的角度，阐述了这种结构化的改变，所以选项C a top-down process，自上而下的过程，符合文意。
40. The author concludes that individual efforts
A. can be too aggressive
B. can be too inconsistent
C. are far from sufficient
D. are far from rational
【答案】B are far from sufficient
【解析】根据题干可知这是一道观点细节题。根据题干关键词可定位在最后一段，“None of this is about writing off the individual. It’s just about putting things into perspective. We don’t have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action, alongside engaged citizens pushing for change.”由该段可知，作者认为并不是要抹杀个人，只是换一个角度去思考问题，我们没时间再等待，我们需要能够形成集体行为的进步政策，以及推动变革的热心公民。所以作者强调个人的努力还远远不够，还需要政策的进一步支持，选择B选项，are far from sufficient。
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